In the thirteenth century, Chinggis Khan and his successors created the largest land empire in history. By the 17th century, however, Mongolia came under Chinese control, which lasted until the fall of the Manchu Dynasty in 1911. From 1911 to 1919, Mongolia declared its independence from China with Russian assistance. Mongolia modeled its elections since 1951 after the Soviet Union's system of allowing only one political party to exist in the country. The party was Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), which was the communist party body, and only party allowed, in country until 1990. Following the Soviet policy of Perestroika and the democratic uprisings in Eastern Europe, Mongolia successfully have political transition, for the first time, it made significant strides towards its electoral reform, by introducing multi-party election in 1990. The country's multi-party system developed first opposition coalition parties, the so-called Democratic Union Parties, forming prior to the elections of 1996 wherein they scored a dramatic victory over the MPRP which broke 75 years of communist party rule. An election of deputies to the national assembly on 28 June 2012 resulted in no party having an overall majority. The Democratic Party won most seats and its leader, Norovyn Altankhuyag, became prime minister on 10 August 2012.
The president of Mongolia has a largely symbolic role, but can block the Parliament's decisions. Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, a two-time former prime minister and ex-member of the Democratic Party was elected as president on May 24, 2009 and inaugurated on June 18 that year.